University of Oxford/AstraZeneca
The University of Oxford vaccine is delivered via a chimpanzee virus, called the vaccine vector. The vector contains the genetic code of the protein spikes found on the coronavirus and triggers a strong immune response in the human body. The vaccine is in a combined phase 2/3 trial in the UK and
has recently gone into phase 3 trials in South Africa and Brazil
Wuhan Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm
American biotech company Moderna is developing a vaccine candidate using messenger RNA (or mRNA for short) to trick the body into producing viral proteins itself. No mRNA vaccine has ever been approved for an infectious disease, and Moderna
has never brought a product to market
. But proponents of the vaccine say it could be easier to mass produce than traditional vaccines.
Chinese company Sinovac is developing a vaccine based on inactivated Covid-19 particles. The vaccine has shown a promising safety profile in the early stages of testing and is now moving into Phase 3 trials in Brazil.
Beijing Institute of Biological Products/Sinopharm
CanSino Biologics Inc./Beijing Institute of Biotechnology
Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc
Cadila Healthcare Limited
Osaka University/ AnGes/ Takara Bio
Inovio Pharmaceuticals/ International Vaccine Institute
Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies
Anhui Zhifei Longcom Biopharmaceutical/Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences
University of Queensland/CSL/Seqirus
People’s Liberation Army (PLA) Academy of Military Sciences/Walvax Biotech.
Institute Pasteur/Themis/Univ. of Pittsburgh CVR/Merck Sharp & Dohme
Instituto Finlay de Vacunas, Cuba
Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation/NIAID/Dynavax
Clover Biopharmaceuticals Inc./GSK/Dynavax
Gamaleya Research Institute
University of Melbourne/Murdoch Children’s Research Institute
The Murdoch Children’s Research Institute in Australia is conducting a phase 3 trial using a nearly 100-year-old tuberculosis vaccine. The vaccine is not thought to protect directly against Covid-19 but might boost the body’s non-specific immune response.